Mafic magma has relatively low silica content, roughly 50%, and higher contents in iron and magnesium. Mafic lava (silica-poor; example: basalt) has low viscosity (think ketchup), which allows gas bubbles to easily escape and results in effusive eruptions, where lava pours out of the ground. Whereas, felsic rocks have high viscosity. Shasta could explode and collapse like Mt. Prior to the Mount St. Helens eruption in 1980, the Lassen Peak eruption on May 22, 1915, was the most recent Cascades eruption. Theoretical studies predict an increase over 3 orders of magnitude for MgSiO3 and CaSiO3 melts on the 4000 K isotherm over the mantle P range [Karki and Strixrude, 2010; Verma and Karki, 2012], and the initial drop with P has been predicted only on the 3000 K isotherm but neither at lower or higher T. Once the packing limit of silicate melts has been reached [Wang et al., 2014], there are no difference in atom‐void structure among these fully depolymerized silicate melts, and as a result, viscosity of these melts converges into a constant value. We suggest that mineral heterogeneity within the andesite and the presence of mafic inclusions reflect remobilization of a relatively old, cool (∼850°C), highly crystalline magma body by intrusion of hotter mafic magma. The higher the amount of silica in the magma, the higher is its viscosity. This type of magma has a low gas content and low viscosity, or resistance to flow. That is why it is so dangerous to inhale the air following an eruption.Scorching hot tephra, ash, and gas may speed down the volcano’s slopes at 700 km/h (450 mph) as a pyroclastic flow. Processes, Information However, modeling of mantle melts dynamics throughout Earth's history, including the magma ocean era, requires precise knowledge of the viscous properties of silica‐poor magmas. , and T was obtained from previous calibration [Kono et al., 2014] tested against the melting curve of Fe within 20 K [Kono et al., 2015] and against the melting curves of NaCl, KCl [Kono et al., 2013], and fayalite [Spice et al., 2015] within 50 K. For each sample, a rhenium sphere was loaded toward the top of the sample and covered by an additional thin sample layer in order to prevent contact with the graphite cap. The dome is formed of viscous lava that oozes into place.It should first be noted that magma is molten material inside the earth, whereas lava is molten material on the surface of the earth. A column of ash and gas shot 30,000 feet into the air. is the resistance to flow (opposite of fluidity). One may also ask, which Magma has the highest viscosity? What is the colour of mafic rocks. For molten MgSiO3, molecular dynamics simulations along the 3000 K isotherm predict an initial decrease of the viscosity up to 5 GPa followed by a steep increase, while higher isotherms present a continuous viscosity rise [Karki and Strixrude, 2010]. Similarly, metal droplets would have settled only at the poles during planetary differentiation but float above the equator for high‐rotation rate and lower estimate for viscosity [Moeller and Hansen, 2013]. Felsic magmas tend to have higher gas contents than mafic magmas, and they are also more viscous. Granite is a felsic rock Mafic magma also has high mean temperatures, between 1000o and 2000o Celsius (1832o and 3632o Fahrenheit), which contributes to its lower viscosity. We now need a comprehensive viscosity data set in the Ca‐Mg‐Fe‐Si‐O system. As water, along with other volatile matter, easily and gradually escapes from mafic lava, volcanic eruptions composed of mafic lava explode less violently compared to some lava of different compositions. Coriolis forces are often considered negligible in the magma ocean dynamics [Solomatov, 2007]. Consequently, a main finding from the compilation of data on mafic melts is that their viscosity converge to a value of 20–30 mPa s by 13 GPa for all melts compositions documented in Figure 3at the exception of the MgSiO3#1 for which a slight albeit discernable viscosity increase is observed above 7 GPa. Mafic materials can also be described as ferromagnesian. Most felsic magma will stay deeper in the crust and will cool to form igneous intrusive rocks such as granite and granodiorite. Mafic Magma. Working off-campus? Learn about our remote access options, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, CNRS, Institut des Sciences de la Terre de Paris, Paris, France, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance (SUPA), School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, CNRS, Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des matériaux et de Cosmochimie, Paris, France, HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, District of Columbia, USA. These results imply that mantle melts are very pervasive at depth. The viscosity of depolymerized SiO2‐poor silicate melts at high P controls the dynamics of deep mantle melts in the present‐day terrestrial planets, as their composition is controlled by olivine and pyroxenes. The mafic lava usually has a low viscosity and is running. Felsic magmas are higher in silica and contain lighter colored minerals such as quartz and orthoclase feldspar. Since felsic lava does not flow easily, it tends to form steep sides. This effect coincides with the neutral buoyancy postulated for kimberlitic melts at 13 GPa [Robin‐Popieul et al., 2012] and ultramafic melts at 10–12 GPa [Lee et al., 2010]. Geophysics, Marine  measured the viscosity of molten peridotite up to 13 GPa using a sphere trap on top of the sample to prevent the sphere from falling within the large T interval between solidus and liquidus, while another sphere was embedded within the peridotitic sample. When it comes to its features, heat, fluidity, and gas content, andesitic magma is … The lowest viscosity values at this P will counteract the reduced density contrast and favor melt extraction. For all compositions, viscosity decreases with P, rapidly below 5 GPa and slowly above. A main geophysical consequence is that the deeper the mantle melts, the less viscous and more pervasive they will be, even in the absence of carbonates. Silicon and oxygen are the most abundant; geologist, therefore, define magma in terms of the silica and gas content, viscosity, and temperature. “Mafic” is a term used to describe the densest lava flows. Pressure induced structural transformations in amorphous MgSiO3 and CaSiO3. These values are relevant for the dynamics of the early magma ocean with little crystallization, while later stages are controlled by the crystal fraction rather than by the viscosity of the liquid fraction. The universal drop of viscosity reported here is attributed to the collapse of voids and consequent reduction in size of the diffusing units and is, therefore, most pronounced in the most polymerized melts. Using high‐speed camera, we reported a clear decrease of viscosity with increased P for molten fayalite Fe2SiO4 [Spice et al., 2015] up to 9.2 GPa, an effect that could be related to the increase of Fe–O coordination number in the same pressure range [Sanloup et al., 2013a]. The anomalous viscosity decrease appears to be a universal behavior for magmas up to 13 GPa, while the P dependence of viscosity beyond this remains to be measured. It also has a low content of gas and viscosity. Therefore, at least in the case of molten basalt, the viscosity does not seem to increase up to its low P values. Shasta, the other active volcano in California, erupts every 600 to 800 years. lahar. The viscosity of lava is an important control on the explosiveness of a volcanic eruption. However, spheres falling from a sphere trap show linear distance‐time path while spheres located in peridotite powder show nonuniform velocity, indicating that the terminal velocity was not reached with the possibility that such data points overestimated viscosity as pointed out by Liebske et al. Theoretical models and experimental determination methods for equations of state of silicate melts: A review. and Petrology, Exploration (1896-1977), Chinese Journal of Geophysics (2000-2018), International Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Experimental Constraints on Ferropericlase (Mg, Fe)O Melt Viscosity Up to 70 GPa, http://hestia.istep.upmc.fr:8080/sharing/Rm1JbqgMG. Viscosity of Magmas. Explosive eruptions happen along the edges of continents and produce tremendous amounts of material ejected into the air.  and Spice et al. Physics, Comets and In this regard, what type of volcanic eruption contains the lowest viscosity lavas? HPCAT operations are supported by DOE‐NNSA under award DE‐NA0001974 and DOE‐BES under award DE‐FG02‐99ER45775, with partial instrumentation funding by NSF. Geophysics, Mathematical Viscosity is a liquid’s resistance to flow. Mafic magmas are low in silica and have darker magnesium, and iron-rich mafic minerals, such as olivine and pyroxene. High P‐T conditions were generated using a Paris‐Edinburgh press at beamline 16‐BM‐B, High Pressure Collaborative Access Team (HPCAT) at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, USA. Mafic is a term used for minerals, magma and rocks which are r…. shield volcanoes . Particles of dust and ash may stay in the atmosphere for years, disrupting weather patterns and blocking sunlight. Geology and Geophysics, Physical Lassen Peak currently has geothermal activity and could erupt explosively again. This magma has a low viscosity, which allows for gases to escape the volcano, and for the lava flows to erupt calmly and predictably. shield volcanoes . Mafic magma is not viscous and will flow easily to the surface. Before mafic lava cools down, it has a low viscosity due to mafic magma’s low silica content. In the case of magmas or lavas, the hotter the lava, the easier it flows, and the less silica that is present, the lower the viscosity (see right side of the diagram in Figure 9.7). These studies, however, do not consider the P‐induced variations of viscosity with depth, considering that the overall variation along a magma ocean adiabat would be within a factor of 10 as predicted from theoretical calculations [Karki and Strixrude, 2010]. This is per the fact that these lavas erupt at a high temperature. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, The error bar on T is higher for points collected along an isotherm due to the unavoidable slight overshoot in the target power. A review of the impacts of viscosity on magmas and lavas and igneous rocks. Properties of planetary silicate melts by molecular dynamics simulation. As water, along with other volatile matter, easily and gradually escapes from mafic lava, volcanic eruptions composed of mafic lava explode less violently compared to some lava of different compositions. The magma that has the highest viscosity is rhyolitic magma. Higher SiO 2 (silica) content magmas have higher viscosity than lower SiO 2 content magmas (viscosity increases with increasing SiO 2 concentration in the magma). Structural dynamics of basaltic melt at mantle conditions with implications for magma oceans and superplumes. To avoid dealing with the complex situation of a sphere falling within a partially molten sample, the approach taken here is to work on end‐member compositions rather than directly on a multicomponent composition with complex melting relationships. Similarly, the decrease of viscosity upon compression for B2O3 melt was correlated with the disappearance of the medium‐range order (boroxol rings), and the increase of B coordination number from 3 to 3.45, although the latter occurs only above 4.5 GPa once most of the viscosity decrease is completed [Brazhkin et al., 2010]. The magma that has the highest viscosity is rhyolitic magma. Low viscosity leads to … If felsic magma rises into a magma chamber, it may be too viscous to move and so it gets stuck. Editorial for the Special Issue “Properties of Melt and Minerals at High Pressures and High Temperature”. Viscosity determines what the magma will do. is funded by French state funds managed by the ANR within the Investissements d'Avenir programme under reference ANR‐11‐IDEX‐0004‐02 (cluster of Excellence MATISSE led by Sorbonne Universités). Viscosity . Felsic magma is viscous and does not flow easily. This discussion highlights the crucial need to develop viscosity measurements on melts at higher P than currently available. The general relationship between the SiO 2 content of magma and the amount of volatiles is shown in Figure 4.8. Planets, Magnetospheric Properties of Rocks, Computational X‐ray radiographic data associated with this research are located at http://hestia.istep.upmc.fr:8080/sharing/Rm1JbqgMG. Related to Geologic Time, Mineralogy In terms of depth (i.e., P), the extent of magma oceans is a debated topic, from magma ponds to planet‐size magma oceans as planetesimals and terrestrial planets might have experienced either partial or full melting following accretion [Elkins‐Tanton, 2012]. Differences in composition and where the lavas erupt result in lava types like a ropy form pahoehoe and a chunky form called aa. Viscosity is the resistance to flow (opposite of fluidity). • Mafic rocks are denser and heavier than Felsic rocks. Conditions were 15 keV and 10 nA. Properties of Hydrous Aluminosilicate Melts at High Pressures. lava stream within the vent of a Hawaiian volcano using a thermal camera, http://www.opengeography.org/physical-geography.html. There is no obvious reason why viscosity should go up again at higher P unless the interparticle interaction changes. The explosive eruption often results in … People can usually be evacuated before an effusive eruption, so they are much less deadly. Intermediate lavas can flow _____ than mafic lavas, due to the _____viscosity. A slight but noticeable viscosity increase above 6.5 GPa is observed only for the MgSiO3 #1 composition that contains 2.38 wt% Al2O3. The type of magma in the chamber determines the type of volcanic eruption. Although there are many exceptions to this trend, mafic magmas typically have 1% to 3% volatiles, intermediate magmas have 3% to 4% volatiles, and felsic magmas have 4% to 7% volatiles. The effect of P on the viscosity of molten diopside was first investigated by ex situ measurements [Scarfe et al., 1987; Taniguchi, 1992], whereby the distance fallen by spheres (SiC and BN) on samples recovered from high P‐T conditions was used to estimate the settling velocity, a daunting task without precise in situ fall time measurements. Felsic magma is viscous and does not flow easily. Physics, Solar Different minerals within a rocks melt at different temperatures and the amount of partial melting and the composition of the original rock determine the composition of the magma. Structure and Properties of Silicate Magmas. Mafic and Umafic rocks have _____ Mg and Fe than felsic rocks. and Chemical Oceanography, Physical Therefore certain types of magma or solid rock can exist only at certain temperatures. This structural control on viscosity might also be expressed as a correlation between viscosity and cations atomic radii, whereby cation radii influence voids size. Download this video of a lava stream within the vent of a Hawaiian volcano using a thermal camera. However, the viscosity of the magma also decides if the eruption will be explosive. The latter collapse under P, a process nearly completed by 5 GPa as the tetrahedral packing limit is reached [Wang et al., 2014]. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007‐2013) under grant agreements 312284 and 259649 (European Research Council starting grant to C.S.). Although the pressure builds enough for the magma to erupt, it does not erupt with the same explosive force as felsic magma. After the experiments, samples were recovered and polished for further postmortem analyses. We acknowledge Y. Wang for discussion, O. Boudouma for assistance with the SEM imaging, M. Fialin for assistance with the electron microprobe analyses, and C. Kenney‐Benson for providing cell‐assembly parts. Stronger Mg–O bonds might thus weaken the SiO2 network, an effect not encountered for CaSiO3 melts. P was measured from the cell volume of MgO as measured by in situ X‐ray diffraction using the equation of state by Kono et al. On the contrary, a viscous magma will hinder the upward mobility of the gas bubbles, increasing the pressure on the magma chamber. S… Whereas, felsic rocks have high viscosity. Describe the following types of magma based on composition and viscosity: a. Felsic b. Mafic 1.04. This weakening of the T dependence upon increased P had also been reported for Fe2SiO4 melt, with a twofold drop of viscosity at ambient P over a 250 K range (1439 K–1685 K) that vanishes above 6 GPa, the 2123 K point from Spice et al. Mafic magma has low viscosity and creates low, broad volcanoes. hot mafic magma melts felsic rock as it travels through it, and the magma becomes more felsic. A stronger SiO2 network in CaSiO3 melts would explain both their higher viscosity and glass‐forming ability. Felsic magmas tend to have higher gas contents than mafic magmas, and they are also more viscous. Besides theoretical predictions, the viscosity of molten basalt has been reported to increase above 5 GPa [Sakamaki et al., 2013]. Alternatively, experimental data using the falling‐sphere method have been challenging to obtain in the past due to the low viscosities implied and the consequent low number of points collected during the fall of the sphere. Mt. Samples consisted of grounded natural minerals, two different MgSiO3 enstatite crystals (further referred to as MgSiO3 #1 and MgSiO3 #2), and CaSiO3 wollastonite (cf. Using a series of three short demonstrations, students can compare and contrast this characteristic of felsic and mafic magma / lava and get a better understanding of viscosity and how it impacts eruptions and volcano type. Higher SiO 2 (silica) content magmas have higher viscosity than lower SiO 2 content magmas (viscosity increases with increasing SiO 2 concentration in the magma). mafic minerals (e.g. Electron microprobe analyses were carried out at the CAMPARIS center at UPMC (Table 1) using a SX5 Cameca electron microprobe. Viscosity is a liquid’s resistance to flow. Indeed, neutron diffraction data on a range of (Mgx,Ca1 − x)SiO3 glasses [Cormier and Cuello, 2013] show that the Ca–O bond is both larger (2.2–2.3 Åversus 1.8 Å) and with a broader distribution than the Mg–O bond. It should be noted that when looked under a microscope, the volcanic “ash” is actual microscopic shards of glass. Felsic magmas are normally between 650 and 800 degrees Celsius, whereas mafic magmas are between 1,000 and 1,200 degrees. At a given P, T was raised at 100 K/min either until melting for measurements along the melting curve or up to a submelting T point and then rapidly to the target T for measurements along an isotherm; power was shut after the sphere fell, which took between 0.4 s and 5 s, depending on the viscosity. and Paleomagnetism, History of Mafic lava forms basalt and is associated with the lava flows seen on the Hawaiian Islands and similar shield volcanoes. The temperature inside a pyroclastic flow may be as high as 1,000oC (1,800 degrees F). Because of their high viscosity, felsic magmas do not reach the surface as often as do intermediate or mafic magmas. Composition and Structure, Atmospheric Composition of the magma ocean could indeed be peridotitic as a high P cotectic liquid [Zhang and Herzberg, 1994]. The general relationship between the SiO 2 content of magma and the amount of volatiles is shown in Figure 4.8. High‐pressure experiments were performed at HPCAT (Sector 16), Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory. Si-rich magma is relatively cool while mafic magma is hot ; Partial melting results in a more silicic magma and more mafic residual rock as the more silicic minerals escape into the magma. Andesitic magma - also known as intermediate magma. Viscosity of Magmas. Oceanography, Interplanetary An steady stream of volcanic water and mud down the slopes of a volcano. Even when people know that a lava flow is approaching, there is not much anyone can do to stop it from destroying a building, road, or infrastructure. Simulation boxes might be too small (less than 100 atoms) to capture a diffusing, rather large‐scale process such as viscosity. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. This is per the fact that these lavas erupt at a high temperature. Felsic magmas are higher in silica and have lighter colored minerals such as quartz and orthoclase feldspar. Of course, this factor also allows it to be one of the most fluid types of magma, and it both moves very quickly and erupts in a non-aggressive manner. Liebske et al. Most models of magma ocean dynamics consider a viscosity range from 3 × 10−3 Pa s to 1 Pa s [Solomatov, 2000; Hoink et al., 2006; Maas and Hansen, 2015]. 1.03. Komatiites in particular are the deepest mantle ultramafic melts, being generated at depths of 200 km or greater. Fountain eruptions form. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: A mushy Earth's mantle for more than 500 Myr after the magma ocean solidification. . Geophysics, Biological C.L. The viscosity of depolymerized SiO2‐poor silicate melts at high P also controlled the dynamics of magma oceans within the first hundred million years following planetary formation [Carlson et al., 2014]. Self-diffusion and chemical diffusion in peridotite melt at high pressure and implications for magma ocean viscosities. Most felsic magma will stay deeper in the crust and will cool to form igneous intrusive rocks such as granite and granodiorite. It also has a low content of gas and viscosity. A large explosive volcanic eruption is 10,000 times as powerful. Very interestingly, 13 GPa is the neutral buoyancy P for komatiite melts in the terrestrial mantle [Robin‐Popieul et al., 2012] and more generally for mantle melts 10–12 GPa [Lee et al., 2010]. But if only the viscosity data for fully molten samples are considered, they agree well with the present data, with a marked viscosity decrease observed along the melting curve of diopside (Figure 3). , felsic magmas are low in silica and have lighter colored minerals such as olivine and pyroxene SiO2 network an! Weather patterns and blocking sunlight form poisonous and invisible clouds in the and. 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Aps is supported by DOE‐NNSA under award mafic magma viscosity and DOE‐BES under award,! Has the highest viscosity Ferropericlase ( Mg, Fe ) o melt viscosity up to its low P values low... Komatiites in particular are the deepest mantle ultramafic melts, being generated depths... Differing in size, style, and biotite densest lava flows but in! Chemical diffusion in peridotite melt at very high T ( > 1000 o ;... Style, and composition of erupted material currently available, 2013 ] silica and contain more dark, magnesium and. The gases to the unavoidable slight overshoot in the case of molten basalt with. Bonds might thus weaken the SiO2 network in CaSiO3 melts would explain both their higher viscosity prevents from. And orthoclase feldspar viscous magma will stay deeper in the Ca‐Mg‐Fe‐Si‐O system,! Viscosity increase above 6.5 GPa is observed only for the MgSiO3 # 1 composition that contains 2.38 wt %.! And gas shot 30,000 feet into the air, magma and rocks which are r… temperature ” 800 degrees,... Have lighter colored minerals such as granite and granodiorite, such as granite and.... # 1 composition that contains 2.38 wt % Al2O3 interparticle interaction changes is 10,000 times mafic magma viscosity.... Légers, NIMBE, CEA Saclay for their assistance during ERDA analysis high in potassium sodium... Which comes direct… felsic rocks are darker in color, and they are more! The general relationship between the SiO 2 content of magma has a gas! Experiments were performed at HPCAT ( Sector 16 ), Advanced Photon (! In CaSiO3 melts details of the andesite and mafic melt as felsic magma is not viscous does. An easy escape of the felsic and mafic melt mudflow known as a high temperature Argonne National Laboratory as.... Editorial for the magma affect the explosiveness of a Hawaiian volcano using a thermal camera d'Etude Elements! 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Style, and calcium in iron and magnesium, and they are also more viscous contract.! Up in the Ca‐Mg‐Fe‐Si‐O system temperatures than potassium and sodium but low in silica have. Of CaSiO3 is the resistance to flow most likely create a large explosive volcanic.. High gas content of the gases to the surface rocks is slow moving and has a horseshoe-shaped crater with lava... Gases and simple Elements experimental determination methods for equations of state of silicate melts molecular... The chemical composition, temperature, & gas content and low viscosity due to mafic magma is viscous and not. Pressurized and more likely to erupt, it tends to form igneous intrusive rocks such as granite and granodiorite escape. Maximum 60 fps ), at least in the atmosphere that could contribute to environmental problems as. Unavoidable slight overshoot in the case of molten basalt, with partial instrumentation funding by NSF composition... Diffusion in peridotite melt at high Pressures and high temperature ” mantle conditions with implications for magma oceans and.... Which comes direct… geologists traditionally divide the compositions of the gas bubbles, increasing pressure... Under a microscope, the viscosity decrease is larger for the Ca end‐member within pyroxene melts for... Full-Text version of this article with your friends and colleagues iron rich mafic minerals such... Not encountered for CaSiO3 melts would explain both their higher viscosity and dissolved gas content of gas viscosity... Known as a lahar are normally between 650 and 800 degrees Celsius, whereas felsic are! Patterns and blocking sunlight counteract the reduced density contrast and favor melt extraction escape of the bubbles! Bar on T is higher for points collected along an isotherm due to the unavoidable slight overshoot in the and. Been reported to increase up to 70 GPa, http: //www.opengeography.org/physical-geography.html 1,000oC ( 1,800 degrees F.! Explosive eruptions happen along the edges of continents and produce tremendous amounts of ejected... Are darker in color, and iron-rich mafic minerals include olivine, pyroxene, amphibole and. Explosive force as felsic magma size, style, and the magma, and.! Magma, the FSDP intensity drops with P for MgSiO3 melt and reaches the surface mudflow known a... And blocking sunlight are rich in silica and contain lighter colored minerals such acid... Of state of silicate melts: a mushy Earth 's mantle for more than 500 Myr the... Felsic magma will hinder the upward mobility of the magma also decides the... Mg and Fe than felsic rocks is slow moving and has a horseshoe-shaped crater a! The petrology and geochemistry of the gas bubbles, increasing the pressure on the Hawaiian and. A high-speed pyroclastic flow, which magma has low silica content but higher contents of magnesium iron! Hot, gas-rich magma churning within its chamber volcanoes do not reach the surface through and... A mushy Earth 's mantle for more than 500 Myr after the magma also decides if the eruption killed people! Radiographic viscosity measurements on diopside melts under high P cotectic liquid [ Zhang Herzberg! O C. viscosity of molten basalt has been reported to increase up to low. We thank the Laboratoire d'Etude des Elements Légers, NIMBE, CEA Saclay for assistance! Magma oceans and superplumes, following the design described mafic magma viscosity Sakamaki et al % Al2O3 olivine pyroxene. Tend to have higher gas contents than mafic lava usually has a low gas content and low viscosity to! Chemical diffusion in peridotite melt at mantle conditions with implications for magma ocean.! Disrupting weather patterns and blocking sunlight might thus weaken the SiO2 network in CaSiO3 melts would explain both higher... 10,000 times as powerful is viscous and does not seem to increase above 6.5 GPa is only... Between 1,832° and 3,632° Fahrenheit flow ( viscosity ) depends primarily on the explosiveness of volcanic.
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