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were used in all infantry divisions in World War II. The French 75:The 75mm M1897 field gun that revolutionized modern artillery (Osprey New Vanguard 288) El cañón francés de 75 mm modelo 1897 fue un cañón que incorporó una serie de novedades que hicieron de él un cañón revolucionario que sirvió de referencia para muchos otros modelos posteriores. See more ideas about guns, french, cannon. Its firing rate could even reach close to 30 rounds per minute, albeit only for a very short time and with a highly experienced crew. They were known as 75mm armata wz.1897. M1897 75mm野砲(仏: Canon de 75 modèle 1897)は、フランスが1897年に採用した口径75mmの野砲である。, M1897は、しばしば“シュナイダー M1897”と呼ばれるが、フランスの国営兵器工廠が製造しておりシュナイダー社は開発に関与していないため、シュナイダー社が設計したM1912 75mm野砲やM1914 75mm野砲とは直接には関係ない。M1912やM1914はM1897用の砲弾と薬莢が使用可能であり、M1897よりも小型軽量であるが構造が複雑であった。, 世界で初めて液気圧式駐退復座機を搭載した大砲の一大革命児であり、既存の火砲と比較して飛躍的に連射速度が向上した。製造国のフランスをはじめとしてアメリカやポーランドなどが採用し、第一次世界大戦から第二次世界大戦にかけて用いられた。, M1897野砲の特徴は、駐退復座機を装備したというこの一点こそが最大の特徴である。それまでの臼砲を除く野戦用火砲は砲撃を行うたびに反動で砲が後ろに下がるので、砲撃を行うつど砲を元の位置に戻して照準の再調整を行う必要があったため、実質的な連射速度は1分当たり2発が限界であった。, しかしM1897は、駐退復座機を装備したことにより、砲撃時に砲身だけが後ろに下がることで砲架にかかる反動を軽減させて砲全体が後退することを防いでいる。これによって砲撃を続けている間に砲の位置を元に戻したり(標的を変えない限り)照準を再調整したりする必要も無くなり、連射速度は1分当たり15発にまで上昇したので、味方の歩兵部隊に対して、より濃密な火力支援を行うことが可能となった。, この砲が開発された後、世界各国で駐退復座機を搭載した火砲の開発が盛んになり、5年後の1902年にはドイツのクルップ社も独自に設計した液圧駐退・バネ復座式の駐退復座機を開発し、自社製の火砲に採用すると共にラインメタル社や日本、イギリスなどにも売り込んだ。バネ復座式は性能的には気圧復座式と大差無いが容積と重量がかさばるため、第二次世界大戦ごろにはドイツ製の火砲も液気圧式駐退復座機を搭載するようになった。, 閉鎖機は隔螺式を採用している。砲架については単脚式であるため、水平射角は左右3°ずつに過ぎない。仰角も18°程度しか取れないため、砲手から直接目視できない目標を砲撃する間接照準砲撃は行えないなど、まだまだ第一次世界大戦以前の型であることは否定できなかった。, 砲弾は開発当初、榴弾と榴散弾、散弾のみが用意されていたが、第一次大戦中にはマスタードガスやホスゲンガスなどを充填した毒ガス弾も使用されるようになった。 In typical use, the French 75 could deliver fifteen rounds per minute on its target, either shrapnel or melinite high-explosive, up to about 8,500 m (5.3 mi) away. Many others were used for training until 1942. The wheel brakes could be swung under each wheel ("abattage"), and, together with the trail spade, they immobilized the gun during firing. The 75mm M1897 earned its reputation in the Great War, forming the backbone of French field artillery. [10], In June 1940, with many British field guns lost in the Battle of France, 895 M1897 field guns and a million rounds of ammunition were purchased from the US Army. It was commonly known as the French 75, simply the 75 and Soixante-Quinze (French for "seventy-five"). The French 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted in March 1898. Albert Deport, Etienne Sainte-Claire Deville and Emile Rimailho. Field Gun, 75mm M1897 This artillery piece was the U.S. Army adaptation of the "75 modèle 1897" or "French 75". 31 March 1941, List and pictures of World War I surviving 75 mm Mle 1897 guns, Photos of a reproduction or restored US M1918 limber for the 75 mm gun M1897 with all accoutrements, Mortier de 220 modèle 1915/1916 Schneider, Canon Court de 105 M modele 1909 Schneider, Obusier de 200 "Pérou" sur affût-truck TAZ Schneider, Mortier de 293 Danois sur affut-truck modèle 1914, Canon de 220mm L Mle1917 Schneider (FAHM), Mortier 280 mm TR de Schneider sur affût-chenilles St Chamond, Mortier 280 mm TR de Schneider-St Chamond, Canon Court de 105 M modèle 1919 Schneider, Mitrailleuse Gatling modèle APX 1895 (1895), 8 mm Lebel smokeless powder cartridge (1886), Du Temple high-circulation steam engine (1876), Camion équipé d'un système d'artillerie CAESAR (2008), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Canon_de_75_modèle_1897&oldid=993415845, World War I artillery of the United States, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from March 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2007, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2012, Articles with Polish-language sources (pl), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1898–present (still used as a saluting gun). Captain Sainte-Claire Deville also designed important additional features, such as a device for piercing the fuzes of shrapnel shells automatically during the firing sequence (an "automatic fuze-setter"), thus selecting the desired bursting distance. At the beginning in 1914, the French 75 fired two main types of shells, both with high muzzle velocities (535 m/s for the shrapnel shell ) and a maximum range of 8,500 meters. Hydraulic fluid leakage was typical of this experimental phase of artillery development during the 1890s, as Haussner and Krupp had previously experienced. Since it did not need to be re-aimed after each shot, the crew could reload and fire as soon as the barrel returned to its resting position. [17] When the French Army discarded its 105 HM2 howitzers to replace them with MO-120-RT mortars,[18] only 155mm artillery pieces remained, for which no blank cartridges were available. [9] At the Armistice there were 29 guns in service in Britain. [15] There were 480 American 75 mm field gun batteries (over 1,900 guns) on the battlefields of France in November 1918. The armored caissons were designed to be tilted in order to present the shells horizontally to the crews. This is the first English-language history of the legendary French 75mm field gun, which revolutionized artillery firepower and helped save France in 1914. In 1941, these guns began to become surplus when they were gradually being replaced by the M2A1 105 mm M101 split-trail Howitzer; some were removed from their towed carriages and installed on the M3 Half-Track as the M3 Gun Motor Carriage (GMC). Mar 14, 2018 - Explore Chris Steadman's board "French 75mm M1897 Field Gun" on Pinterest. Some models were modernized at Resita works in 1935 including French md. During the 1930s, most M1897A2 and A3 (French made) and M1897A4 (American made) guns were subsequently modernized for towing behind trucks by mounting on the modern carriage M2A3 which featured a split trail, pneumatic rubber tires allowing towing at any speed, an elevation limit increased to 45 degrees, and traverse increased to 30 degrees left and right. Both the tank and field guns fired the same range of 75x350R ammunition. The French 75 mm field gun was a quick-firing field artillery piece adopted in March 1898. In 1915 Britain acquired a number of "autocanon de 75 mm mle 1913" anti-aircraft guns, as a stopgap measure while it developed its own anti-aircraft alternatives. The public saw it for the first time during the Bastille Day parade of 14 July 1899. Colonel Joseph-Albert Deport, at the time the Director of the Atelier de Construction de Puteaux (APX), and asked him whether he could construct a gun on the general principle of the Haussner long-cylinder recoil without infringing the existing patents. [2][3] It was the first field gun to include a hydro-pneumatic recoil mechanism, which kept the gun's trail and wheels perfectly still during the firing sequence. Many were captured by Germany during the Fall of France in 1940, in addition to Polish guns captured in 1939. Extensive trials, however, revealed that it was still prone to hydraulic fluid leakage from the long-recoil mechanism. During the barrel's recoil the floating piston was forced forward by the oil, compressing the air even further. Several types of guns of close caliber were barreled to use the best ammunition available for 75 mm caliber, explosive projectile model 1917 "Schneider". The new barrel was made of steel alloy with chrome and nickel with excellent mechanical resistance to pressure which allowed, after modifying the firing brake, the recovery arch and the sighting devices an increase of the range from 8.5 km to 11.2 km and a rate of fire of 20 rounds/minute. The “Soixantequinze,” France's legendary 75mm Modele 1897, was the first modern field gun, pioneering several critical innovations in field artillery designs, including a fast action breech and a soft recoil system. The French 75 was a devastating anti-personnel weapon against waves of infantry attacking in the open, as at the Marne and Verdun. This problem was solved by equipping the field artillery regiments with the French 75mm mle 1897 field gun. The French 75mm Modele 1897 was the best candidate and is widely considered by historians to be the first modern cannon. Various deceptions, some of them linked to the Dreyfus Case which erupted in 1894, had been implemented by Deloye and French counter-intelligence to distract German espionage.[5]. 第二次世界大戦中の1940年には、エドガー・ブラント社が弾芯径58mmの装弾筒付徹甲弾を試作している。, 1890年、ドイツのクルップ社が駐退復座機を搭載した野砲の開発に着手したと考えたフランスは、自らも駐退復座機を備えた野砲の開発を開始した。1894年には試作品が完成したが、気圧式復座機構の気圧の維持が難しく、改良を必要とした。1896年に実用に耐える駐退復座機が完成し、それを取り付けた砲身と砲架が設計された。さらには野戦での運用を容易にするための照準器とニッケル鋼板の防盾も取り付けられ、1898年3月28日に制式採用された。, 第一次世界大戦直前の1913年には、大仰角を取れるように再設計された砲架に搭載されたモデルが開発され、これは4輪の自動車に搭載されて“Auto-canon de 75 modèle 1913”の名称で自走高射砲(高角砲)として使用された。, 第一次世界大戦勃発当時には、フランス陸軍の主力野砲となっていた。しかし、戦争が塹壕戦に移行すると、75mm砲弾では塹壕の構築物を破壊するには威力不足であったため、M1897は主に直接照準による機銃座の破壊や、榴散弾の曳火砲撃と毒ガス弾の投射による塹壕内の兵員殺傷に使われるようになった。また、サン・シャモン突撃戦車の主砲としても使用された。, 第一次大戦が終わったのちもM1897はフランス軍で長い間使用され続け、一部は開脚式砲架を備えた対戦車砲仕様に改修されたほか、その他の砲も木製車輪をゴムタイヤに取り換えている。1940年のナチス・ドイツのフランス侵攻でもドイツ軍相手に使用されたが、フランスの敗北によりヴィシー政権軍に残されたもの以外はすべてドイツ軍に接収された。, 第一次世界大戦参戦時にフランスから急遽1,900門を導入し、その後はアメリカ国内でライセンス生産が行われた。第一次大戦後も長く使われたが、野砲としては1940年から、より大口径・長射程・高汎用性をもつ自国製のM2A1 105mm榴弾砲に更新されて退役した。, M1897野砲をM3ハーフトラックの荷台に搭載したM3 75mm対戦車自走砲が開発され、アメリカ軍の初期の戦車駆逐車として北アフリカ戦線やイタリア戦線、太平洋戦線で使用されている。, 75mmM2/M3戦車砲はしばしばM1897ベースとされているが、実際には発展型ではなく弾薬の互換性があるT2/T3高射兼野砲やT26GMCにも車載されたT6高射砲といった試作砲の流れを汲んでいる。また、75mmM5/M6戦車砲はB-25G/Hに搭載された75mmM4/T13E1を車載用に改造したものである。, 独立後のポーランド・ソビエト戦争時にフランスから軍事援助の一環として供与され、ロシア帝国から分離独立時に接収したM1902 76mm野砲と共にソ連赤軍との戦闘で使用された。1939年のポーランド侵攻時にも1,374門を保有しており、ドイツ軍や赤軍に対して使用したが、多数がドイツに鹵獲され、ドイツ軍で運用された。, ドイツ軍は、ポーランド侵攻や西方電撃戦(オランダ侵攻・フランス侵攻)において、ポーランドやフランスが保有していた多数のM1897野砲を鹵獲した。ポーランドで鹵獲したものには7.5 cm F.K.97(p)、フランスで鹵獲したものには7.5 cm F.K.231(f)の制式名称を付けて運用した。, 1941年のバルバロッサ作戦によるソ連侵攻(独ソ戦)において、ドイツ軍の主力対戦車砲である3.7 cm PaK 36や5 cm PaK 38がソ連軍のT-34中戦車やKV-1重戦車に対してほとんど歯が立たず、7.5 cm PaK 40の数が揃うまでのピンチヒッターとしてM1897野砲に白羽の矢が立った。, 水平射角を確保するために5 cm PaK 38の砲架と組み合わせるなどの改良を加えた7.5 cm PaK 97/38に改修されたM1897は、成形炸薬弾を用いればT-34をあらゆる方角から撃破可能であり、KV-1に対しても側面や背面の装甲なら貫通可能なため、初期には重宝された。しかし、7.5 cm PaK 40や7.62 cm PaK 36(r)と比べて初速が低く徹甲弾の威力が低い上に砲弾の互換性も無かった。しかも、組み合わせた砲架は本来50mm砲のために用いられるものであったため、75mm砲の反動を受け止めるには自重が不足しており、据わりの悪さと弾速の低さで距離500m以上だと射撃精度が明らかに低下した。, このため、7.5 cm PaK 40の数が十分に揃うと東部戦線から引き上げられてフランスに移され、大西洋の壁に配備されたり、東欧の同盟軍へ引き渡された。, https://ja.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=M1897_75mm野砲&oldid=79751551. , anti-aircraft and trench Matériel ( 1920 ) '' United States War Department to in... 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